Comprehensive characterization of anticoagulant rodenticides in sludge by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Cristian Gómez-Canela, Silvia Lacorte

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The occurrence of 10 commonly used anticoagulant rodenticides in centrifuged sludge of 27 wastewater treatment plants was evaluated using solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Activated carbon, alumina, and Florisil cartridges with methanol/dichloromethane as eluting solvents were tested in combination with primary-secondary amine (PSA) to optimize an efficient sample cleanup. PSA in combination with Florisil was the best methodology to extract anticoagulant rodenticides in sludge providing recoveries between 42 ± 0.5 and 100 ± 2 %. Warfarin, bromadiolone, ferulenol, and coumachlor were the most ubiquitous compounds in sludge at concentrations up to 84.2 ng g−1 for the latter. Coumatetralyl, dicoumarol, and brodifacoum were detected sporadically at levels between 6.1 and 17.4 ng g−1. On the contrary, acenocoumarol, difenacoum, and flocoumafen were not detected in any sample. Finally, we estimated the amount of anticoagulant rodenticides discharged via sludge in order to determine the potential impact to agricultural soil according to different sludge usage practices in the region investigated. This study demonstrates that anticoagulant rodenticides are accumulated in sludge during activated sludge treatment and that the application of sludge as fertilizers may pose a future environmental risk, if not controlled.

Idioma originalAnglès
Pàgines (de-a)15739-15748
Nombre de pàgines10
RevistaEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Estat de la publicacióPublicada - 1 d’ag. 2016
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